Wei Xiaoli was subverted!

According to electric home news, on August 2, the transcripts delivered by the new car-making forces in July were released one after another. Surprisingly, the monthly delivery champions and runners-up all changed hands. After two months of rapid growth, the growth of new forces slowed down in July.And "Wei Xiaoli" unexpectedly experienced negative growth..Nezha Auto and Zero Run Auto won the first and second place in delivery this month..

Specifically, Nezha, which delivered about 14,000 cars in July, took the top spot in the delivery of new cars by the new force of car making, surpassing Xpeng Motors, which had previously dominated the list. Zero-run cars rose to the second place with a delivery volume of about 12,000 units, with a year-on-year increase of over 177%, hitting a new high for three consecutive months, leading the growth list. Xpeng Motors delivered 11,524 electric vehicles in July, down from 15,295 in June, ranking third. In July, LI and Weilai Automobile delivered 10,422 units and 10,052 units respectively, ranking fourth and fifth, and their chain sales declined. In July, the sales volume of AITO series with deep cooperation between Huawei and Cyrus reached 7228 units, a year-on-year surge of 8873.56%. The delivery of krypton cars reached 5022 units.

For a long time, Wei Lai, Xpeng Motors and LI (collectively referred to as "Wei Xiaoli") are the only protagonists or even pronouns of the new domestic car-making forces. Their business trends or their founders’ remarks have been in the spotlight for a long time, and they have often caused heated discussions. As the first batch of new car companies that have enjoyed the policy dividend and survived smoothly, Wei Xiaoli’s performance is still disappointing. After 7-8 years of establishment, it is close to achieving the annual delivery leap. However, as more and more traditional car companies accelerate their turn, the new force car companies in the second echelon have made great efforts to rush to the capital market. At the same time, they have repeatedly impacted the three-legged pattern of Wei Xiaoli in terms of delivery, and the era of "Wei Xiaoli" will soon be "subverted".

According to the data of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, last year, the sales volume of new energy vehicles in China was 3.521 million. According to the Development Plan of New Energy Vehicle Industry (2021-2035), the sales volume of new energy vehicles will reach about 20% of the total sales volume in 2025, that is, about 6 million vehicles. Based on the high growth rate of sales of new energy vehicles in the past two years, the sales volume in 2025 will definitely exceed 6 million, that is to say, it will almost double the market size in 2021. In the first half of this year, the production and sales of new energy vehicles were 2.661 million and 2.6 million respectively, both increasing by 1.2 times year-on-year, and the market penetration rate was 21.6%. The China Automobile Association predicts that there will be more than 5.5 million new energy vehicles in China in 2022, with a growth rate of over 56%. 2025 is a time point that is often mentioned. BAIC Group and Changan Automobile decided to completely stop selling fuel vehicles in 2025. LI will take 20% market share in 2025; Geely has set a target of selling more than 650,000 vehicles in 2025 for its new brand. ……

Obviously, all car companies are eyeing the big cake of the new energy vehicle market, and the competition in the future will only become more intense. It seems that the disintegration of the Wei Xiaoli Iron Triangle is an irreversible trend. Or it can be said that the symbol of the era of "Wei Xiaoli" has completed its mission of opening up the new energy market and completing the basic education of users’ minds, and the next batch of "Wei Xiaoli" will also begin to assume the responsibility as the new protagonist.

In July, the data delivered by the new forces of car-making are as follows:


Specifically, Weilai delivered a total of 10,052 new cars in July, a year-on-year increase of 26.7%. From January to July, 2022, Weilai delivered 60,879 new cars, a year-on-year increase of 22.0%. As of July 2022, Weilai has delivered a total of 227,949 new cars.

XPENG Motors

In July this year, Xpeng Motors delivered a total of 11,524 units, including 6,397 units delivered by Tucki P7, 3,608 units delivered by Tucki P5 and 1,519 units delivered by Tucki G3i. Since the delivery, the cumulative delivery volume in Xpeng Motors has been close to 220,000 units. Compared with 15,295 units in June, the delivery volume of Tucki in July dropped, with a total of 3,771 units missing. Among them, the two main models, P7 and P5, have significantly reduced the delivery volume. In June, P7 delivered 8,045 units and P5 delivered 5,598 units.

Li Auto

In July 2022, LI delivered 10,422 Li ONE vehicles, and from January to July this year, 70,825 vehicles have been delivered. During the whole delivery cycle, the total delivery volume in Li ONE reached 194,913 vehicles. Compared with the results in June, the ideal also ushered in a certain decline. In June, the ideal delivery number was 13,024 vehicles, which means that 2,602 vehicles were ideal in July.

Nezha automobile

In July this year, Nezha delivered a total of 14,037 new cars, of which 1,382 were exported overseas, a certain improvement compared with 13,157 in June. Nezha has always been known as the dark horse of the new forces. In the past six months, the delivery volume can be said to be rising, and it is often "amazing". From January to July this year, Nezha delivered a total of 771.68 million new cars with the combination of "U+V", and the sales volume of the new cars was close to that of Tucki.

Zero run car

In July this year, a total of 12,044 units were delivered by Zero Run, which was further improved compared with 11,259 units in June, with a year-on-year increase of over 177%. And hit a new high for three consecutive months. Compared with Wei Xiaoli’s short-term decline, zero running without new car baggage is bullish all the way.


Guangzhou Automobile Aian sold 25,033 units in July, up 138% year-on-year; From January to July, the cumulative sales volume was 125,284 units, a year-on-year increase of 135%.

AITO Wen Jie

In July, the delivery volume of AITO brand boundary series in deep cooperation between Huawei and Celestial Automobile reached 7,228 vehicles, a record high and a steady growth from the previous month. Among them, it took only 87 days for Wenjie M5 to deliver more than 10,000 vehicles, which set a new record for the fastest delivery of a single model of a new brand. By July 31st, 2022, the cumulative delivery volume of the M5 was 26,348 vehicles.

Since it was released, the demand for orders of the series has been growing rapidly, but the production and delivery capacity are also affected by fluctuations in the supply chain. At present, Celestial Motors is taking various measures to overcome the pressure brought by the epidemic situation and supply chain, and promote the continuous climbing of production capacity and delivery.

At the beginning of July, the customer M7 was officially released, which is the second model jointly built by Huawei and Celeste after the customer M5. According to the official statement, only 72 hours after the launch of the new car, the number of orders has exceeded 60,000.

Extreme krypton car

As a luxury hunting coupe owned by Krypton Intelligent Technology, in July, Krypton 001 delivered 5022 units, an increase of 16.73% from the previous month, creating a monthly record since delivery. By the end of July, a total of 30,039 units had been delivered. In addition, in July, the large order for Krypton 001 broke through 10,000 again, and the average order amount exceeded 335,000 yuan.

According to Krypton officials, the production capacity of Krypton 001 has climbed rapidly, from 0-10,000 units to 107 days, and from 10,000 to 20,000 units to 64 days. It is expected that the delivery of Krypton 001 will continue to improve steadily in the second half of the year.

From chastity lock, husband being killed by his wife to online celebrity being exposed by domestic violence, what makes us think deeply?

       CCTV News:In order to prevent and stop domestic violence, China implemented the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Anti-Domestic Violence Law in 2016, which made detailed provisions on the prevention, disposal and legal liability of domestic violence. Behind the promulgation of this law is the constant appeal of countless cases and experts and scholars.

       On April 23rd, 2000, legal report broadcasted a program called "Chastity Lock", which was also the earliest program of legal report focusing on domestic violence.

       This program is about a man who put a lock on his 22-year-old girlfriend to ensure her chastity.


       At the age of 48, Yao opened a clinic in Wuhou District, Chengdu. He used disgraceful means to make the girl Rong Rong commit herself to him. According to Rong Rong’s memory, "The first time I went to the clinic to see a doctor, the second time I went to the infusion, I didn’t know what kind of granule I ate first. I asked him, and he said to take a medicine first, so I took it. After eating it, I was dizzy and lost my virginity."

       Although Rong Rong is 26 years younger than Yao, she thinks she has no choice but to live with this man after losing her virginity. 19 years ago, Rong Rong’s thoughts were representative, and the traditional concept of chastity was still the shackles of the thought of "Rong Rong". Rong Rong didn’t expect it at all. Just after the two lived together, Yao put a real lock on her.


       Rong Rong: "Yao suspected that I had stolen someone, so he called me to write a review, and I had to write it in his outline, or I would fight if I didn’t write it."

       When the reporter interviewed Yao, he asked him if he thought it was illegal to do so. Yao replied: "I think it is a housework. She agrees with me. It is the same as Zhou Yu’s yellow cover. One is willing to fight and the other is willing to suffer."

       Rong Rong said that she didn’t agree with Yao’s practice of locking her up at that time, but Yao forced her to have surgery by violent means. At that time, Rong Rong was pregnant for four months. After locking, Rong Rong couldn’t stand the pain and asked her neighbors for help. The neighbors reported the police. The public security organs arrested Yao on suspicion of insulting women. Until now, she didn’t know that Yao had actually been married for more than ten years, and his wife left home with her little daughter because she couldn’t stand Yao’s domestic violence. Rong Rong, who is only living together with Yao, has become a substitute for Yao’s domestic violence. In front of the camera, Yao kept saying that it was a housework, and the experts refuted it with great certainty: it was not a housework at all.


       In fact, since the 1990s, many experts, scholars and people of insight have been advocating to stop domestic violence through public power. They also called for legislation on "anti-domestic violence".


       In 2001, the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China was revised, and "prohibition of domestic violence" was written into law for the first time. At the same time, the Marriage Law also stipulates that husband and wife have equal status in the family and have the obligation to support each other. The legal provisions that seem to be two declarations are interpreted in vivid cases.

       On July 16th, 2002, the program "The Murder of the Song Family" broadcast by legal report told a very rare case of domestic violence. The case happened on May 21st, 2002. Meng Moumou, a resident of Shenyang, was killed at home. It was none other than his wife Huang.

       Huang: "After all, I hurt my lover. I love him very much. I don’t care if I pay for him. I also recognize it for him." However, what the reporter learned is quite different from Huang’s statement.


       Meng Moumou and Huang have been married for more than ten years. In the years before the incident, both husband and wife were laid off and their lives were tight. His wife, Huang, is strong. She sells newspapers during the day and takes a bath in the bath at night. She earns 15,600 yuan a month, which is the economic pillar of her family. However, her husband, Meng Moumou, has always been idle, has no financial resources at all, and still drinks, gambles and credits outside, so the two often fight. However, it is basically the wife who beats her husband. According to the neighbors, the couple have a small fight for a day or two and a big fight for three or two days, but every time they fight, the husband never fights back.

       One day half a month before the incident, her husband Meng Moumou said that he had found a job loading and unloading fruits in the fruit market. This news really made his wife happy for several days. On May 21, 2002, his wife, Huang, went to the fruit market to find out the situation, but she found that her husband didn’t work there at all. In the evening, when her husband came home, they quarreled, and then they started to fight. His wife Huang grabbed a shovel head, subdued her husband twice, and then tied Meng Moumou to a chair and beat him up.



       In an interview, Huang said that she didn’t know what was going on at that time, and her mind was blank. She wondered how her husband didn’t learn well. How could a man who was almost 50 years old do this? She was very angry at that time. From 7: 00 pm to 9: 30 pm, my wife is tired of scolding and scolding … … Finally, watching the husband lying on his back foaming at the mouth, his wife panicked and quickly asked her 14-year-old daughter to dial 120, and then the police rushed to the scene. In the end, her husband Meng Moumou died, and his wife Huang was sentenced for the crime of intentional injury. Their daughter was also deeply hurt.

       When commenting on this case, experts pointed out the important source of domestic violence: the unequal status between members of marriage and family. As far as the relationship between husband and wife is concerned, if one party thinks that he is the pillar of this family economically, it will lead to the psychology that others will obey him. When a woman carries a heavy burden on her family, she feels very wronged and "angry" with her husband, but she has no right to achieve a so-called balance by infringing on the other person’s right to life and health. After all, husband and wife have the obligation to help each other in law.

       On December 29, 2011, Li Yang’s divorce case was reported, and foreign women who suffered from domestic violence bravely appeared. In those days, experts and scholars repeatedly called for the introduction of anti-domestic violence laws as soon as possible, making the laws more operational and making the vulnerable in the family no longer afraid.

       In 2012, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held, and the strategic goal of "comprehensively promoting the rule of law and accelerating the construction of a socialist country ruled by law" was put forward, and the construction of the rule of law entered the fast lane.

       On December 27th, 2015, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) deliberated and passed the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Domestic Violence Law, and the appeal became a reality. Since then, anti-domestic violence work has entered a new era.

       In response to the question of why it took so long for anti-domestic violence legislation to succeed, mo jihong, director of the Institute of International Law of the Academy of Social Sciences, said that the family ethics formed in the feudal social history of our country for thousands of years, that is, things at home are not told, feelings are told at home, beating is kissing and scolding is love, and not beating or scolding is going to deteriorate. Everyone has a high tolerance for the use of violence by family members and a poor awareness of rights protection. Therefore, it took more than ten years to repeatedly do social work, point out this harm, and slowly let the public realize that this problem really needs to be solved through the participation of the news media, and legislation should intervene, and everyone gradually reached a consensus. This is why the Anti-Domestic Violence Law can be promulgated and widely recognized by the society, which is also the embodiment of the development and progress of the times.

       On November 25th, 2019 (International Day against Domestic Violence), online celebrity Yuya (He Moumou, female, 28 years old) accused her boyfriend Tuotuo (Chen Mou, male, 44 years old) of domestic violence against herself in Weibo, and exposed a video surveillance of being dragged by her boyfriend in the elevator. The incident quickly attracted attention and once again caused public discussion on the social problem of domestic violence. Immediately, Weibo, the public security bureau of Jiangbei District, Chongqing, said that the relevant departments attached great importance to it and intervened in the investigation at the first time. The Chongqing Municipal and District Women’s Federation said that it strongly condemns all domestic violence and will provide help and services to the parties. The political and legal departments of Jiangbei District have carried out investigation and handling according to law.


       A few days later, the Jiangbei District Public Security Bureau announced the investigation results. From the beginning of April, 2019 to the end of August, 2019, Chen Mou repeatedly dragged, shoved, beat and other intentional injuries to He Moumou (He Moumou’s injury was not minor or above). In addition, it was found that Chen Mou also committed illegal acts that threatened the personal safety of others through WeChat. In view of the above-mentioned two illegal acts of Chen Mou, the public security organs respectively imposed administrative penalties according to the Law of People’s Republic of China (PRC) on Public Security Administration Punishment, combined with administrative detention for 20 days and imposed a fine.

       He Moumou applied to Jiangbei District People’s Court for a personal safety protection order on November 27, 2019 to prevent Chen Mou from intentionally injuring him again. At present, the hospital has made a personal safety protection order for He Moumou according to the facts identified after examination.

       Bai Yansong, the host of CCTV, commented on the abuser in domestic violence on November 30, 2019: "Can a man who beats his wife or girlfriend still be called a man? I think not. As for whether it can be called people, everyone has his own opinion. " Although the perpetrator in domestic violence is not necessarily a man, we can certainly understand similar feelings.

       Domestic violence is an act of intentional injury. According to the relevant provisions of China’s criminal law, anyone who intentionally hurts another person’s body and causes minor injuries or more shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance. Whoever intentionally injures and causes serious injuries shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; Whoever causes death or causes serious disability by particularly cruel means shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 10 years, life imprisonment or death. For a single act that is not seriously injured, but there is indeed long-term abuse, China’s criminal law stipulates that if a family member is abused in a bad way, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than two years, criminal detention or public surveillance, and if the victim is seriously injured or killed, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than two years but not more than seven years.

       In addition, the legal profession emphasizes that victims of domestic violence must pay attention to retaining evidence, including recordings, videos, medical records and so on. Because what responsibility the perpetrator will bear depends on the victim’s injury.

       Domestic violence is prohibited by law and deeply hated by society. Combating domestic violence is the common responsibility of the state, society and every family. Every family member also has the obligation to be a participant, supervisor and practitioner of anti-domestic violence. Only by weaving dense grass-roots protective nets can domestic violence, a decadent and illegal act, perish in the sun.

The "chain" on the data is the "health account" of the battery, and the new energy battery realizes the green cycle.

  CCTV News:In recent years, China’s new energy vehicle market has experienced explosive growth, and a round of "retirement tide" of new energy batteries is also coming. The battery contains a variety of heavy metals, which will cause environmental harm if it is not handled properly. While the new energy automobile industry is booming, where should the retired batteries go?

  In a battery recycling plant in Guangdong, the reporter saw that the batteries retired from new energy vehicles were piled up in the whole factory.

  Lin Xiaojie told reporters that in order to deal with the surge of retired batteries, the company built two new factories in Jiangmen and Jiangsu in 2023, and opened 10 new production lines. After the retired batteries enter the factory, they will go through the processes of screening, crushing and smelting. Valuable metals such as nickel, cobalt and manganese are extracted and resold. However, if this process is not handled properly, it will cause pollution to the environment.

  According to statistics, China has entered a period of large-scale decommissioning of power batteries. In 2023, China’s decommissioned power batteries will reach 590,000 tons. Since 2028, the decommissioning of power batteries in China will exceed 2.6 million tons per year. What should I do with the surge in retired batteries? The reporter saw various solutions in the investigation.

  According to the national standard for new energy vehicles, the remaining 80% capacity of the power battery can be retired. The decreased battery capacity will reduce the cruising range and affect the user’s experience. However, retired batteries can still be used in energy storage, electric bicycles and other scenes with low requirements on battery performance to achieve "step utilization".

  The "chain" on the data is the "health account" of the battery book.

  Although "step-by-step utilization" can prolong the service life of power batteries, it is not easy for recycling enterprises to practice, mainly because the cost of knowing the loss degree of retired batteries is very high. The reporter found in the investigation that the application of a new technology is bringing changes to the industry.

  In front of this big screen, the health data of more than 30 thousand power batteries are flashing in real time. Don’t underestimate these data. Liao Zhicheng, the head of the battery operation company, told reporters that they can make some batteries sell for three times more when they are recycled.

  In the past, if you want to reuse the retired batteries, the recycler can only disassemble the battery pack, test the health of each battery cell, pick out the appropriate ones and assemble them into new battery packs. And more recycling enterprises that lack the corresponding technology and manpower can only dismantle and crush the retired batteries as waste products and sell the heavy metals in the batteries directly.

  The chip in Liao Zhicheng’s hand is like a "healthy housekeeper" on the battery. It not only "accounts" the use of the battery at all times, but also uploads the data to the blockchain platform in real time so that they cannot be tampered with. In this way, the recycler can know all the "health data" of the battery without disassembling them one by one. The reporter learned that battery packs with a high degree of "health" can be sold to 300 yuan at the time of recycling, which is three times that of the past.

  At present, China has built the world’s largest new energy equipment blockchain platform, with more than 8 million new energy equipment on the chain. With the use of street lamps, toys and other scenes that require less battery capacity to join the cycle, it is possible to use new energy batteries more times.

  Green cycle of new energy batteries from production to recycling.

  After retirement, the service life of new energy batteries will become longer, but they will eventually be dismantled and recycled. How to make the new energy battery form a green cycle of energy saving and environmental protection from production to recycling?

  China’s lithium resources account for only 7% of the world’s total, but China’s production and sales of electric vehicles account for 60% of the world’s total. Therefore, it is of great significance to extract lithium, cobalt, nickel and other metals from batteries and recycle them into new batteries.

  The reporter learned in the investigation that at present, more than half of the retired batteries are handled by enterprises that do not have the qualification to handle them. There are some problems in dismantling and recycling, such as high energy consumption, low metal recovery rate and poor environmental protection. In view of the present situation, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced four batches of white list enterprises for power battery recycling, and actively guided the regularization of power battery recycling.

  Experts told reporters that to form a stable, green and sustainable recycling system for power batteries, unified national standards, industry standards, recycling standards and recycling channels are needed. In recent years, China has successively issued national standards such as power battery disassembly specifications and residual energy detection, so as to promote the national unified coding of power batteries. The relevant departments said that they are speeding up the formulation of the Management Measures for the Recycling of Power Batteries for New Energy Vehicles to further improve the standard system of power batteries.

Staff: Accurate Music Language

  A special music performance was held in Montpellier, a city in the south of France. Eighteen birds played a wonderful movement on a Gibson electric guitar.

  With the piano entering more and more families, the staff has changed from "familiar face" to "explosive red" among the general public. Because in piano teaching, the notation of staff is widely used all over the world, and only the staff can fully express the music score.

  Notation is to music what words are to language.

  The earliest information of human music can only be preserved from generation to generation through oral instruction. Before the modern high-tech sound carrier appeared, there was only one notation for recording and storing music. At present, the most well-known staff faithfully "writes" the composer’s creative intentions and achievements, which can be called a spectacle created by human music civilization and a microcosm of the emergence and development of music language.

  1. The music recorded on plants opens the notation.

  The earliest origin of staff can be traced back to ancient Greece. Music occupies a very important position in the field of knowledge in ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks used two notations, both of which used letters or similar letters as symbols. One was used to record the melody of vocal music, and the other was used to record the melody of instrumental music. Vocal music notation originated in Ionian at the end of the 5th century BC, and instrumental music notation may be earlier. It is said that the music written in the Vienna National Library on the plant products called Pa Pirus is the oldest music in the world, with a history of two thousand years.

  Some studies also show that a city discovered in 1918, 100 miles southwest of Cairo — — In an ancient ruins in Oxilinkus, researchers found a written record of music — — A hymn fragment written on papyrus. In those days when music was usually spread by word of mouth, even the private remains scrawled on papyrus were extremely rare. This is also the only music record that survived in the first 400 years of Christianity. Above this hymn, the pitch and sound value are recorded by some alphabetic arrangement or simple auxiliary line symbols, which is also a typical feature of the earliest music score format. It has eight different notes, spanning an octave, these letters arranged in a straight line, each note corresponds to a scale, and the scale combination of long and short squares; The horizontal strokes and individual dots on the notes indicate which words should be emphasized when singing.

  In addition, a scholar from the University of California, Berkeley, published an article in 1985, demonstrating that the earliest musical notation was found on the cuneiform tablets originating from the two river basins.

  As the predecessor of staff notation — — Newham notation appeared in the 8th century AD. The word "Neum" comes from Greek, which means "symbol" and is a way to express music in the form of drawing. Since the 8th century, in order to prevent those uncommon hymns from being forgotten because of too long interval, monks who copied hymns added some symbols similar to language stress or punctuation at the top of the lyrics, indicating the up-and-down trend of hymns concisely. This symbol is called "Neum Spectrum".

  In the early days, Newham notation was limited to indicating the direction of hymn tunes, and could not indicate the pitch position and note length. Later, someone creatively used a straight line to mark Newham spectrum to the top and bottom of this straight line, and defined this straight line as F, so the ancestor of staff appeared — — A line spectrum.

  In the middle of the 9th century, a complete hymn melody copied with Newm symbols appeared. In the development of notation, some places began to arrange the upper and lower spatial distances between Neum symbols according to the size of intervals. Moreover, Newham notation indicating the pitch and interval structure of melody has gradually formed, and some symbols can indicate a single note or a group of notes, which helps people to record music melody completely. Later, this Newham spectrum gradually developed into two-line spectrum and three-line spectrum.

  It took nearly four centuries to change from color to black and white.

  Different from today’s black-and-white world, the staff was colorful in the process of reproduction.

  In the 11th century, Guido D ‘Alezzo, a musician in arezzo, Italy, added Newham spectral lines to four lines, and specified the pitch as D, F, A and C, and the range was about eight degrees. Different pitches were expressed by clef or color, and the red line represented F sound, and the yellow line or green line represented C sound, which made the pitch more accurate. This kind of music score was called "four-line score", and they later became high notes in the staff. Since then, due to the need of playing, Newham’s spectrum has appeared six-line spectrum, seven-line spectrum and even eleven-line spectrum. To commemorate the invention and birth of the staff, people called Guido D ‘Alezo "the father of the staff".

  Then, how does the staff come from "stepping on colorful auspicious clouds" return to the black and white world?

  More and more composers are involved in the exploration of more accurate music notation. By the 13th century, the four-line score used all black lines, only a Latin letter was written at the front of the line to indicate the absolute pitch of this notation. This method gradually became popular in Europe at that time. But unfortunately, it still can’t show a clear rhythm. Especially the multi-part melody is becoming more and more complex, and people urgently need to find a way to accurately describe the length of each sound. At this time, a monk named Frank in Cologne, Germany, pioneered the different lengths of "black notes" in his book The Art of Theorem Songs. This notation, which strictly specifies the length of notes, rests and marks, is a supplement and enrichment to Newham’s spectrum and can be called a landmark improvement in the development of line spectrum.

  In the 15th century, the trend of black notes receded, and the types of notes increased, and hollow notes appeared to represent the sound value, which is also commonly known as "white notes". With the development of line spectrum in this period, the position of pitch and the length of sound can be basically recorded, and the Fu Tou has also become a circle.

  In order to change the situation that the spectral lines of musical scores are too many and complicated, European countries later unified Newham spectrum into five lines, and the notes that are too high or too low were expressed by adding lines, which made the recording of pitch more perfect. Since the 17th century, the staff developed on the basis of Newham’s spectrum and quantitative notation tends to be perfect, gradually finalized and has been used ever since.

  After centuries of "tempering", the staff has gradually reached unprecedented accuracy. According to this, composers can mark the changes of volume, speed and timbre more carefully, which can be said to be "presented in detail"

  When water is full, it overflows. Too precise music "language" was later considered by some people as a "double-edged sword". Although it can convey the composer’s creative intention in detail, it squeezes the space for the performer to improvise, which makes the musician shout "not enough". As a result, the direction of notation has changed again, and the final interpretation right of music has been returned to the performers. The performers no longer stick to "accurate presentation" but boldly release their individuality, which makes each performance unique.

  At this point, music notation has gone through thousands of years of development, from being a summary of memos at first, to helping players repeat performances accurately, and then returning to the original point after a big circle.

  3. The first "cross-border" album recording traditional Chinese opera comes from Mei Lanfang.

  In the history of music development in China for thousands of years, there have been many ways of notation, such as subtractive notation, metrical notation, Lv Zi notation, etc. Up to now, except for Gongchi notation, there are a few old folk artists who are using it, and other notation methods are forgotten because they are too cumbersome.

  Accompanied by drums, ancient people sat together, playing games and cheering for fun — — In this way, the embryonic form of early China’s music score was derived from entertainment. Drum music in the Book of Rites Throwing Pots is the oldest ancient music score in China, which appeared in the Zhou Dynasty and has a history of more than 3,000 years. There are some comma symbols in the score, which are arranged vertically in turn, as well as the words "drum", "semi-drum" and "Xue drum". Experts speculate that these are the terms related to performance, and professionals can also simulate the powerful beat from them.

  In Guan Zi Di Yuan Pian written in the Spring and Autumn Period, a mathematical method for calculating the chord length ratio of each tone in pentatonic scale is recorded, which is called "three-point gain and loss method" in history, and the names of pentatonic scale "Gong, Shang, Jiao, Zheng and Yu" in China are completely described. As to where these five names came from, there are different opinions. Some say that they correspond to the stars, some say that they are derived from five animals, and some say that they are totems of ancient clans. All kinds of opinions paint a mysterious color on music and express the different musical concepts of China ancestors. Up to today, little is known about "Gong Shang Shu", but the five tones of "Gong Shang, Jiao, Zheng and Yu" are quite well-known. For example, in the theme song "Long Wen" of Happy Dictionary of CCTV, there is a lyric that "Gong Shang Jiao Zheng Yu, Qin Qi calligraphy and painting sing, peacocks fly southeast, and weaver girls will be cowherd &hellip. …” This song has been sung by stars many times, and it has also been on the Spring Festival Evening in 2010, which became a hit overnight.

  Compared with the western staff and notation, China’s classical music score does not form the accurate quantification of pitch and rhythm and the transcoding of digital symbols, but only the outline record of the basic pitch and rhythm of traditional music or aria, which gives the performers and singers much more freedom and uncertainty in creation than the western music score, so it is also called "frame score".

  The staff was introduced into China in the mid-17th century. There is a written record in Xieyun Duqu, a sequel to Lv Zheng Yi written by Emperor Kangxi in 1713, which published in detail the knowledge of western music theory such as staff, scales, roll names, etc. Although the staff at that time was only in its primary form and its symbols were very different from today’s, it was spread through this printed book.

  The staff, which has just entered the country, is only used to record and spread the classic songs and hymns that praise God sung in the Catholic church. It was not until the end of the 19th century that it was gradually accepted and used by Chinese people. In 1930, Mei Lanfang’s operas were recorded by musician Liu Tianhua for the first time, and Mei Lanfang’s Songs was published, which is also the first "cross-border" album in China to record traditional opera music with staff.

  4. The notation has been carried forward in China.

  There are two kinds of musical notation: numbers and letters. The most common musical notation is numbers, and its embryonic form first appeared in Europe in the 16th century. At that time, a French Catholic priest named Suaiti wrote music songs with seven sounds, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, and compiled a pamphlet "New Methods of Learning plainsong and Music". In the mid-18th century, Rousseau, a famous French thinker who was famous for his book Confessions, also read the Proposal for New Musical Symbols to the Paris Academy of Sciences, and mentioned the "digital notation". Later, a group of social elites improved and popularized it, and finally formed the notation, which was also called "Galpa-Xie notation" in the west.

  This notation was introduced to Japan in 1882. In 1903, Zeng Zhimao, one of the earliest music theorists in the history of modern music in China, published the article "The General Idea of Music Theory" in a chinese magazine published in Tokyo, introducing the knowledge of western music theory, and published six songs such as "Training" and "Spring outing" in the form of comparison between notation and staff, which is the earliest record of Chinese people using notation at present.

  Shen Xingong, a modern music educator, was also one of the earliest disseminators of musical notation. His School Singing Collection was the first collection of musical notation written and published by China. Since then, notation has gradually spread to schools all over the country. In the 1930s, the mass singing movement of resisting Japan and saving the nation was widely carried out. At that time, famous pop songs, such as March of the Volunteers of Nie Er and The Yellow River Cantata of Xian Xinghai, were written by notation. With the widespread singing of these songs, notation gradually became popular among ordinary people in China.

  The notation of musical notation is the closest to the popular Gong-Chi notation in China, and it is simpler and more accurate to record the height of notes by musical notation. Therefore, musical notation has developed rapidly in China, and some experts even think that China is the country that absorbs and uses musical notation the best and develops it the most in the world. Especially in the field of folk music, notation fits the characteristics of Chinese folk music, because notation records only the general framework of melody, and more needs face-to-face communication between teachers and students; On the playing method of musical instruments, Chinese folk music has many special expressive force symbols, and the use of notation is clear and clear. If staff is used, it will become complicated. These are the important reasons why notation is highly praised by Chinese folk music.

  Of course, this is just a matter of habit. With the blending of modern Chinese and western cultures, more and more folk music also adopts the notation of line notation. In fact, in the field of folk music, there are still many places where staff can be used, and that is the ensemble moment. When all kinds of musical instruments play the same piece of music according to different parts, the powerful function of the staff is revealed, which is unmatched by the notation.

  Related links

  No one can replace the staff or the simple staff.

  Jacky Cheung, a Hong Kong singer who is known as the "God of Songs" in the Chinese music scene, once bluntly said that he did not know the staff, but only knew the simple music. Nowadays, at the scene of some music variety shows, some judges are repeatedly criticized by netizens because they can’t understand the staff. So, is the staff really more "advanced" than the notation?

  Experts pointed out that in the history of music development, people have created various different notations according to their own needs, and different musical instruments, regions and traditional cultures may produce very different notations. Such as guqin, using guqin notation; Traditional Chinese opera uses the notation of gongs and drums. There is also the traditional notation of Gongchi notation in our country, but now there are the most familiar notation, staff notation and so on. We can’t simply say which notation is the best, but which method is relatively scientific. Through accurate notes and various dynamic symbols and emoticons, we can try our best to return the expression intention of the original composer.

  Objectively speaking, staff notation and simple notation both play an important role in the field of Chinese music culture. They complement each other and have irreplaceable functions, but their users are different.

  Notation is simple and clear. Even now, many popular music still uses notation. Compared with other notation, staff has irreplaceable advantages. It records the level of music by the position of the Fu Tou of the note on five parallel horizontal lines, and indicates the length of the note by the different shapes of the note, which can not only visually indicate the pitch of the musical sound, but also accommodate the music information in a large amount, especially in recording and writing large-scale ensemble music with wide range, numerous parts and frequent tone sandhi. Therefore, since the 18th century, the staff has become the main position of music notation, and it has been widely used in the field of professional music in the world today.

  Nowadays, pianos have entered more and more families. In piano teaching, the notation of staff is widely used all over the world, and only the staff can fully express the music score. At the same time, the performance and singing of various music groups, the teaching of music colleges and the learning of piano children all played a very important role in the spread of staff.

  Do you know

  Can’t clap between concerts?

  At the end of the year, many concerts were held together. Watching a concert is different from watching a movie. There are many unwritten rules, such as not applauding between the movements of a symphony, waiting for a complete track to enter the venue when you are late, and so on. Where did these rules come from that the enthusiastic audience couldn’t understand?

  There was a controversy about whether there was applause between movements. Before the end of 19th century, clapping between movements was "not a thing". Mozart gets excited when he hears the applause of the audience when he plays. Once, in a letter to his father, he mentioned, "There is a passage in the middle of Allegro in the first movement, which I know the audience will like very much … … Sure enough, the audience were all in ecstasy and the applause was very warm. I expected this long ago. When I wrote this paragraph, I knew it would be very effective. At the end of the movement, this piece of music appeared again, and sure enough, the audience shouted again and asked to repeat it … …” Repeated applause made Mozart very happy. After the symphony, he even went to the Royal Garden to buy ice cream to reward himself.

  Until the end of 19th century, there were professional cheering people in European opera houses. The function of these "masters" was to cheer in some boring opera performances. Perhaps this move is not flattering. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, most audiences accepted the etiquette agreement of not clapping between movements. Moreover, it has been recognized by some composers. For example, in Mourning for the Dead, Mahler even pointed out that there should be no applause in the middle of the movement.

  In addition, there is an important etiquette for listening to the concert, that is, you can’t be late. If you are late for some reason, you must wait for the guidance of the theater staff and wait for a complete track (not a movement) before you can enter. In fact, being late was not condemned as early as the mid-19th century, because early concerts belonged to small gatherings in aristocratic circles, and being late and leaving early was commonplace. By the end of the 19th century, after Mahler was in charge of vienna state opera, he resolutely implemented the rule that late spectators were not allowed to enter the venue, even if the royal family members were late, which became a etiquette until now.

  There is such a saying

  The New Year concert originated from the old Strauss.

  The New Year is a common festival for people all over the world. There are many ways for people to celebrate the New Year, but holding a high-level concert is a program in major cities all over the world, welcoming the beginning of the new year with relaxed and wonderful music.

  The tradition of holding concerts in the New Year originated in Vienna. On December 31st, 1847, Johann Strauss I, the founder of the Strauss music family, held an open-air concert in the suburb of Vienna. The repertoire included symphonies, waltzes and polkas, which were warmly welcomed by the audience, so that the concert didn’t end until dawn the next day. This is the origin of the Vienna New Year Concert.

  Today, the annual New Year Concert held in Vienna Golden Hall is still the most eye-catching annual music event in the world. Most TV stations and radio stations around the world broadcast live, with tens of millions of listeners. Inspired by this tradition, many countries or cities in the world have also held New Year concerts to celebrate the arrival of the New Year.

  the whole wide world

  Austrian composer’s manuscript sells at sky-high price

  The original manuscript of the score of Austrian composer gustav mahler’s Second Symphony was sold for 4.5 million pounds at an auction held in London, England recently. The 232-page score set a new record for the auction of the score.

  The music seller is the family of Gilbert Kaplan, an American economist and businessman who died two years ago. There is an amazing story behind the score. According to the Daily Mail, Kaplan was fascinated by this symphony, also known as Resurrection, after listening to it at Carnegie Hall in new york in 1965. Never having studied conducting, he is determined to conduct the best orchestra in the world to perform this piece of music one day and put his determination into action.

  Kaplan once described the feeling of listening to Resurrection as follows: "When I entered the concert hall, I was alone, but when I came out, I felt like I was struck by lightning." In the next 17 years, Kaplan traveled all over the world to listen to the performance of this symphony, and discussed his experience with professionals including conductors whenever he had the opportunity. In 1982, he finally stepped onto the stage of Lincoln Center in new york and realized his wish under the witness of many celebrities.

  Photo courtesy of this edition/vision china

China’s manufacturing is not inferior to Europe and America. Why does Li Bin have the confidence to say that "Weilai Automobile will not reduce its price"?

As of January 2021, the market value of Weilai broke through the $90 billion mark. However, in the past few years, Weilai has experienced a series of setbacks and difficulties, such as a number of financing plans falling through, massive layoffs, the resignation of senior executives and the bottoming out of the company’s stock price. Today, Weilai has crossed the line of life and death and regained the favor of capital.

In Li Bin’s own words, it is: "We were actually beaten on the ground with a left fist and a right fist, and then we got up, and then we were beaten on the ground and got up again. But we stopped. "

At the beginning of 2020, Weilai Automobile, which just walked out of ICU, encountered greater challenges: Tesla cut prices and capital rushed to the new energy automobile market … … What is the magic weapon for Weilai Automobile? What is Li Bin’s "happiness trouble"? From "controversy" to "disappointing", how did Wei Lai do it?

Let’s go on to find the answer at 10: 20 on Saturday night, February 6, in the second program of CCTV Finance’s "Meeting Big Coffee" in the fifth season. 

Porsche factory can’t compare with Jianghuai factory?

Weilai Automobile uses its strength to explain that China manufacturing does not lose to Europe and America! 

In the fourth season "Meet Big Coffee" program, Li Bin was questioned by many people because of the phrase "Porsche factory is not as good as Jianghuai automobile factory".

In this episode, Li Bin specially took the host Shi Xiaonuo to visit the factory of Weilai Automobile in Hefei. The factory was originally a swamp, and it took only 20 months to complete from completion to production. Walking into the factory, you can see that the internal equipment is advanced and orderly.

Inside the factory, a series of honors won by Weilai Automobile are displayed: Weilai ES8 ranked first in the quality list of new energy vehicles in China released by J.D. Power in 2019, which has surpassed well-known automobile brands such as BMW and Tesla (this list comes from one of the most professional and authoritative market research companies in the world, and it is also one of the most authoritative lists in the automobile industry), and Weilai ES8 won the European Body Award, becoming the first high-end brand in China at the European Body Selection Conference & HELL. …

In Li Bin’s view, all these honors show that the manufacturing in China has reached a high level, and the spring of domestic electric vehicle brands has arrived.

Li Bin, the "commentator", specially explained the "Porsche": "I visited the Porsche factory more than 20 years ago, and I felt that there was a big gap between us and Europe … … Now, China manufacturing has really reached a very high level in many aspects. "

Tesla cut prices, Weilai sales rose,

Why does Li Bin have the confidence to say that "Weilai Automobile will not reduce its price"?

In 2020, new energy vehicles will have a rapid development, and new forces such as Tucki, Ideality and Weimar will make great efforts in succession, while Tesla, the leader in new energy vehicles, will reduce the price from more than 400,000 yuan to more than 200,000 yuan. Faced with all these challenges, Li Bin has a "happy worry": the production capacity of Weilai Automobile is not enough. Users have to wait for two months or more to buy a Weilai car. 

Li Bin said that in 2020, the sales volume of Weilai Automobile will double that of 2019, but the automobile supply chain is complex and involves many parts, so it will take some time to expand the production capacity. Li Bin, who has experienced many storms, said that he should be "steady".

The most interesting thing is Tesla’s price reduction. The first price reduction has an impact on Weilai’s sales. Later, the price reduction will increase the sales of Weilai Automobile.

Facing the "price attack" from rivals, Li Bin said that Weilai Automobile would not reduce its price, because he believed that the price reduction was an emotional injury to old users. "We should be grateful to the users who have chosen us and be kind to them. This is the bottom line of an enterprise, and the bottom line of each enterprise is not the same. "

Li Bin also said that a penny is worth a penny. "The price of eating tuna is definitely different from that of eating crucian carp." Li Bin prefers to spend more money on building and changing power stations and improving services for users, because "there will always be users in this world who will recognize your value, as long as you don’t make black-hearted money."

Weilai is praised by users as "Haidilao" in the automobile industry.

Li Bin only scored 50 points for Weilai’s user service … …

Owners who have bought Weilai cars are full of praise for the service of Weilai cars. There is feedback from the owner, which is the most difficult time for Weilai, and the service is not discounted. The industry once said that Weilai Automobile was the "sea fishing" of the automobile industry.

However, Li Bin himself only scored 50 points (out of 100) for the service level of Weilai Automobile. Because he feels that "satisfying users is Weilai’s purpose, not a means". On the road that is good for users and car owners, Weilai has no end.

At an internal staff meeting, he asked the staff confidentially, when Weilai Automobile was the most difficult in 2019, who was more determined to buy a car than the company employees? "We paid all the employees, but the owner bought our car, and once the company went wrong, he would suffer actual property losses." 

Li Bin said that what made him "very unhappy" was that so far, no salesman of a company had ever fought for greater benefits for customers in front of him. Li Bin, on the other hand, has long set an example and got along with the owners of Weilai as relatives.

Every day, he will log on to Weilai APP, give big red envelopes to car owners, and regularly attend meetings with riders to "listen to the most primitive and authentic voice in business logic".

What kind of experience is it to grow up with a brand?

Many car owners have gone through the process of fighting wits with their families before buying the Weilai car, but once they drive it, there are few regrets. There are also car owners who have bought two Weilai cars in a row and asked Li Bin: "Why is Weilai so attractive?"

Li Bin’s answer is warm and sincere: "Technological progress will bring emotional experience … … (Buy Weilai car), car owners are willing to watch it grow up. Now it is impossible to have a mature car brand, which will give car owners a chance to grow together with it, but Weilai can. You watch how it overcomes difficulties a little bit, watch it grow up, and even become a part of its growth. "

It is probably this sense of accomplishment and value that makes Weilai car owners make a lot of warm moves: on Weilai Auto Show Day, hundreds of car owners will be present as volunteers to help Weilai sell cars; When Weilai was in the most difficult time, the user did not abandon it, but actively helped Weilai sell the car and pulled it back from the cliff. 

Why does Li Bin think Weilai’s listing was "unsuccessful"?

In 2018, Weilai Automobile boarded the NYSE. When everyone cheered for Weilai’s listing, only Li Bin felt that the listing was not successful. He revealed in "Meeting Big Coffee": Weilai Automobile plans to raise 2 billion US dollars, only 1.1 billion in the end. The funds originally raised should be enough for Weilai to "burn" for two years, but now it is only enough for one year.

What makes Li Bin feel even worse is that on a public occasion, an American fund investor openly said that you are all liars. Compared with Li Bin’s successful listing in the United States with Easy Car Network last time, Li Bin felt that "an era is over". But even if the rhythm is disrupted, Li Bin’s confidence in starting a business remains as firm as ever.

Li Ning is the platform of Weilai bus.

Li Bin revealed his small goal: one third of the world has one.

This left-behind child who walked out of Dabie Mountain has started a tossing entrepreneurial life since he was admitted to Peking University by counterattack. He has experienced four ventures, making three companies listed.

In Li Bin’s view, every time he starts a business, he has his own difficulties, but he is basically not swayed by considerations of gain and loss, and always takes "how big something is" as his mantra. He said that he didn’t care much about the share price of Weilai Automobile, because his mood always followed that and he couldn’t continue to start a business.

At a NIO DAY of Weilai Automobile, Li Ning gladly "stood on the platform" for Weilai Automobile. As the founder of the national sports brand, Li Ning has a certain meaning of "appreciate each other" to Li Bin. Li Bin revealed the development direction of Weilai to Li Ning: "The market we are aiming at is the market of Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi … … See if there is any chance to achieve one third of the world in five years. " Li Ning gave Wei Lai encouragement and shared his secret of starting a business: "Starting a business and living is a great victory."

Indeed, the road to entrepreneurship is not easy, with flowers and applause on the one hand and cliffs and failures on the other. For this venture, Li Bin has great dreams. For example, Weilai Automobile can compete with first-tier foreign brands such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, and at the same time, he has a calm mind: "Many people have asked me if I want to start a business. In fact, it is very simple. You have to think about it. What should you do if you fail? If you fail, you are still willing to do it, then do it. "

On the track of new energy vehicles, the road ahead is still full of unknowns and dangers. At the end of the program, Li Bin said that the only thing he could do was to "look forward and move forward" … … For more stories about Weilai Automobile, at 10: 20 on Saturday night, February 6, the second phase of "Meeting Big Coffee" broadcast by CCTV Financial Channel continued wonderfully.

At the age of 40, it’s time to prevent osteoporosis.

  After the solar term in beginning of winter, the temperature plummeted. According to the annual clinical consultation, the risk of falls and fractures of the elderly will show an upward trend. This is related to environmental factors such as reduced activity in winter, thick clothes and slippery roads, and also related to physical factors such as aging and degeneration of various organs of the elderly. Today we will focus on the problem of osteoporosis. According to the epidemiological survey of osteoporosis in 2018, 6% of male patients with osteoporosis over 50 years old, 32.1% of female patients, and 51.6% of female patients over 65 years old in China. Our country not only has a high proportion of osteoporosis population, but also does not pay enough attention to osteoporosis. The bone mineral density of people over 50 years old is only 3.7%. In fact, both men and women have entered the early stage of bone loss since the age of 40, and we should prevent osteoporosis from this time.

  1 minute self-examination of osteoporosis risk

  By answering the 1-minute osteoporosis risk test of the International Osteoporosis Foundation, you can quickly know whether you have the risk of osteoporosis.

  1. Parents have been diagnosed with osteoporosis or have been fractured after a light fall.

  2. One of the parents has a hunchback.

  3. The actual age is over 40 years old.

  4. Is there a fracture due to a light fall in adulthood?

  5. Do you often fall down (more than once last year) or worry about falling down because you are weak?

  Has the height decreased by more than 3 cm after 6.40 years old?

  7. Is it underweight (body mass index value is less than 19)

  8. Have you ever taken steroid hormones such as cortisone and prednisone for more than 3 months (cortisone is often used to treat asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and some inflammatory diseases)?

  9. Do you have rheumatoid arthritis?

  10. Have you been diagnosed with gastrointestinal diseases or malnutrition such as hyperthyroidism or hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease or celiac disease?

  11. Do you stop menstruating at or before the age of 45?

  12. Have you ever stopped menstruating for more than 12 months except pregnancy, menopause or hysterectomy?

  13. Did you have your ovaries removed before the age of 50 and didn’t take estrogen/progesterone supplements?

  14. Do you often drink a lot (drink more than two units of ethanol every day, which is equivalent to 570ml of beer, 240ml of wine or 60ml of spirits)?

  15. Currently used to smoking or used to smoke.

  16. Exercise less than 30 minutes a day (including doing housework, walking and running, etc.)

  17. Can’t you eat dairy products and don’t take calcium tablets?

  18. Have you been engaged in outdoor activities for less than 10 minutes every day and have not taken vitamin D?

  As long as the answer to one of the above questions is "yes", it is positive, suggesting the risk of osteoporosis, and suggesting bone mineral density testing or evaluating the risk of fracture.

  Bone mineral density detection is suitable for the following groups

  It is not necessary for everyone to do bone mineral density test. Compare the following self-test options to see if you need to have a bone mineral density test.

  1. Women over 65 years old and men over 70 years old, regardless of other risk factors for osteoporosis.

  2. Women under 65 and men under 70 have one or more risk factors for osteoporosis.

  ■ A slight collision or fall will cause a fracture.

  ■ Adults with low sex hormone levels caused by various reasons.

  ■ Those with diseases affecting bone metabolism or a history of using drugs affecting bone metabolism.

  ■ Patients receiving or planning long-term glucocorticoid treatment

  ■ Small and thin people

  ■ Long-term bedridden patients

  ■ People with chronic diarrhea

  ■ The answer to the 1-minute osteoporosis risk test is positive.

  Normal osteoporosis

  Remember "Five Origins and Three Stages" in Prevention and Control

  The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis should follow five principles. First, increase bone mass and increase bone peak value; The second is to delay bone loss; Third, inhibit secondary hyperparathyroidism; The fourth is to prevent the first fracture; Fifth, reasonable dietary structure and nutritional composition ratio, quitting bad eating habits, increasing calcium intake, participating in moderate exercise and increasing sunshine.

  Then, according to these five principles, the measures to prevent osteoporosis can be divided into three stages according to age: primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention.

  The primary prevention of osteoporosis is to start from childhood, to reach the highest bone mass (peak bone mass) in one’s life from childhood and adolescence to around 30-35 years old, with the goal of avoiding or alleviating the occurrence of osteoporosis as much as possible. There are mainly the following measures.

  Reasonable dietary structure: milk is the most ideal calcium source, with 120mg of calcium per 100ml of fresh milk and a calcium absorption rate of 30%. The daily intake of calcium can be ensured by taking 500ml for adults, 750ml for children and 800ml for adolescents.

  Choose foods with high calcium content: sesame sauce, shrimp skin, dried seaweed, kelp, milk, bean products and cheese are all foods with high calcium content.

  Vitamin D intake: The daily intake of vitamin D is 400IU, and the vitamin D content in foods such as cod liver oil, canned sardines, egg yolk, shad and chicken liver is high. Sunlight irradiation is also one of the important ways to supplement vitamin D. Walking in soft sunshine for 40 minutes can ensure the vitamin D needed by the body. It is best to choose the irradiation time before 10 a.m. or after 3 p.m., so as to avoid too strong sunlight damaging the skin and eyesight.

  Moderate exercise: participating in moderate exercise is helpful to increase bone mass and increase the peak bone mass.

  Adhere to a healthy lifestyle: not addicted to alcohol and tobacco; Drink less coffee, strong tea and carbonated drinks; Less salt and less sugar.

  When people reach middle age, they reach the secondary prevention stage of osteoporosis. The core of prevention at this stage is to delay the loss of bone mass in middle age and try to avoid the first osteoporotic fracture. Women aged 40-49 and men aged 40-64 enter the prophase of bone loss: the annual bone loss rate of women is 0.4%-0.6% and that of men is 0.3%-0.5%. Women enter the period of rapid bone loss 1-10 years after menopause, and the rate of bone loss is obviously accelerated, while men do not have the period of rapid bone loss. In addition to food supplement, physical exercise and a good lifestyle, the main preventive methods need to be supplemented with vitamin D and appropriate calcium. The recommended intake of vitamin D for adults is 400IU/d, and the maximum tolerable intake is 2000IU/d. When vitamin D is used for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, the dosage is 800-1200IU/d..

  The tertiary prevention of osteoporosis is the stage of mending after the sheep is dead, mainly aimed at the elderly, which is mainly reflected in inhibiting bone resorption, reducing bone turnover rate and preventing accidental injuries and fractures. Osteoporosis can be treated by supplementing calcium and vitamin D and taking anti-osteoporosis drugs under the guidance of professional doctors, so as to avoid osteoporotic fractures and re-fractures as much as possible.

  Calcium supplementation alone cannot replace treatment.

  The daily calcium intake standard recommended by China Nutrition Association is: 400mg; from birth to 6 months; 600mg; for 6-12 months; 800-1200mg; under 10 years old; 11-24 years old 1200-1500mg;; 1400mg; for pregnant or lactating women over 19 years old; Postmenopausal and postmenopausal women who did not take estrogen 1500mg;; Take estrogen 1000mg; for postmenopausal and postmenopausal women; Middle-aged male 1000mg;; 1000-1500mg for the elderly.

  However, calcium supplementation alone cannot replace the treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis patients can’t overcome the obstacle of calcium utilization by bones only by taking calcium orally, so they should be treated regularly under the guidance of doctors.

  About 30% of elderly people over 60 years old and postmenopausal women have gastric acid deficiency. If they have flatulence and constipation after taking calcium carbonate, they should change to calcium citrate. The absorption of calcium citrate is independent of gastric acid and can prevent kidney calculi, which is especially suitable for those with gastric acid deficiency.

  However, whether calcium supplementation is needed or not should be decided by consulting a specialist in a regular hospital and doing a bone mineral density examination. There is a threshold for calcium absorption. Excessive supplementation is not only a waste, but also can lead to kidney calculi’s disease, ectopic calcification and atherosclerosis. Kidney calculi, patients with advanced bone metastasis, hypercalcemia and cardiac and renal insufficiency are forbidden to supplement calcium.

  (Author: Deputy Chief Physician, Center for Orthopedics, Osteoporosis and Bone Metabolic Diseases, Peking University Third Hospital)

Thousands of people such as Musk signed an open letter, and the development of artificial intelligence endangered the "control of civilization"?

  BEIJING, March 30 (Xinhua)-The American drama westworld and the Hollywood movie Terminator have described that the "awakening" of artificial intelligence (AI) may endanger human beings. Recently, concerns in science fiction films have come into reality, and many "big brothers" in the artificial intelligence industry have suddenly called for suspending the development of more powerful AI systems, suggesting that AI systems with human-level intelligence may "pose potential risks to society and mankind".

  Where do their concerns come from? Will the development of artificial intelligence endanger the "civilization control" of human beings? Has the development of AI reached a turning point where the "pause button" needs to be pressed?

  An open letter, four questions about AI risk

  Recently, elon musk, an American billionaire, and Yoshua Bengio, a top expert in the field of artificial intelligence and winner of Turing Prize, signed an open letter calling for suspending the development of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4 for at least six months, calling it "a potential risk to society and mankind".

  An open letter calling for the suspension of giant AI training. Image source: "Future Life Institute" website

  The open letter published on the website of the Future of Life Institute, a non-profit organization, advocates that before developing a powerful AI system, it should be confirmed that the impact is positive and the risks are controllable.

  The letter details that the AI system with human intelligence may bring great risks to society and human beings, saying that "this point has been recognized by a lot of research and top AI laboratories" and throws four questions in succession:

  -Should we let machines flood our information channels with propaganda and lies?

  -Should we automate all the work, including those that are satisfactory?

  -Should we develop non-human thinking that may eventually surpass us in number, surpass us in intelligence and be able to eliminate and replace us?

  -Should we risk losing control of our civilization?

  The open letter pointed out that if such suspension cannot be implemented quickly, the government should step in and take measures. In addition, "AI Labs and independent experts should take advantage of this suspension to jointly develop and implement a set of shared security protocols for advanced AI design and development, and be strictly audited and supervised by independent external experts".

  The letter also called on developers and policy makers to cooperate to greatly accelerate the development of a powerful AI governance system. This should at least involve regulatory agencies, auditing and certification systems, monitoring and tracking high-performance AI systems, liability issues after artificial intelligence causes injuries, and providing public funds for AI technology security research.

  At the end of the open letter, it is mentioned that today, our society has suspended other technologies that may have disastrous effects, and the same should be true for artificial intelligence. "Let’s enjoy a long ‘ Summer of AI ’ Instead of entering autumn unprepared. "

  Technology, ethics and interests call for slowing down.

  It is not difficult to see from these contents that the supporters of the open letter are more concerned about the possible "barbaric growth" of artificial intelligence and the social and ethical problems that its development may bring.

  As mentioned in the open letter, this suspension does not mean suspending the development of artificial intelligence as a whole, but "taking a step back" from the dangerous competition. The research and development of artificial intelligence should re-focus on making today’s powerful and advanced systems more accurate, safe, interpretable, transparent, robust, consistent, credible and reliable.

  Gary Marcus, a professor at new york University, said, "This letter is not perfect, but the spirit is correct." He believes that people need to slow down until they can better understand the consequences of all this.

  At present, the open letter has been signed by thousands of people, including Emad Mostaque, CEO of open source artificial intelligence company Stability AI, DeepMind researcher of artificial intelligence company of Google’s parent company Alphabet, computer scientist Stuart Russell and other experts, scholars and technology company executives.

  The "Future Life Research Institute" that issued an open letter was mainly funded by the Musk Foundation and the Silicon Valley Community Foundation. Tesla CEO Musk is applying artificial intelligence to autonomous driving system, and he has been frankly expressing his concerns about artificial intelligence.

  Reuters also said that Europol recently expressed ethical and legal concerns about advanced artificial intelligence such as ChatGPT, warning that such systems may be abused for phishing, false information and cyber crimes. In addition, the British government also announced a proposal to establish an AI regulatory framework.

  On the Internet, this letter also caused heated discussion. Some netizens agreed that people need to know what happened. "Just because we know we can build it doesn’t mean we should build it."

  However, some people doubt Musk’s motivation. "Musk signed it because he wanted to use his artificial intelligence to make money."

  Others analyzed, "This is terrible, but I don’t think some projects need to stop. Technology is developing rapidly and responsible innovation is also necessary. "

  Thinking about the relationship between human beings and AI has never stopped since the birth of technology. The famous physicist Hawking once said, "The successful creation of artificial intelligence is probably the greatest event in the history of human civilization. But if we can’t learn how to avoid risks, then we will put ourselves in a desperate situation. "

  Nowadays, from passing the qualification examination to artistic "creation", AI can do more and more things and go further and further in the direction of "intelligence". At the same time, however, criminal acts such as using AI technology for online fraud and extortion and spreading illegal information are also emerging one after another.

  Different from the long cycle of the transformation of technological innovation achievements in the physical world, AI technological breakthroughs often spread around the world overnight through the Internet. These discussions and concerns are not superfluous until human beings fail to find a proper solution to AI ethics and supervision.

At this moment, defending the WTCR championship.

Steam potential Auto-First| Bai Yifeng

Although the COVID-19 epidemic continues to ravage, the final race of WTCR RV World Cup, which was originally scheduled to be held in Italy, was chosen to be held on November 15th in Aragon, Spain, but it still does not prevent it from being a world-class automobile race. In the end, Cyan Racing Lynk & Co team won the championship and runner-up in the third race in one fell swoop, and defended the championship with 429 points.

So far, the team has won 6 drivers’ championships in the six races of the WTCR RV World Cup in 2020, and won the podium for 19 times. Jan Herashe also won the drivers’ championship, representing the first time to win the world’s top car championship at his 24-year-old age, and becoming the youngest champion driver in WTCR history.

During the race, Cyan Racing Lynk & Co did not have a smooth ride. In the first race, due to the wet road surface of Aragon track, all the racing tires lacked grip and rushed out of the track many times. The team adopted the tire strategy of dry before wet, so it took the lead in the initial stage.

However, due to the car accident in the second race, Jan Ahrasche’s biggest competitor retired. Therefore, after the second race, Cyan Racing Lynk & Co team defended the 2020 WTCR team championship ahead of schedule.

Ordinary spectators may be more interested in this racing car. In this race, the BOP counterweight of 03 TCR racing car is 60Kg, and the supplementary counterweight is 40Kg. The whole car reaches 1365Kg, making it the heaviest racing car in this race. To know that the 03+ car weight of four-wheel drive has exceeded 1610Kg, you can imagine how much effort TCR has made in weight reduction.

At the same time, the height of the chassis is kept at 80mm, which is undoubtedly more suitable for the track compared with the coupe model of 120 mm-130 mm. As for why it doesn’t look so low? In order to ensure the tire strength, TCR racing car did not use tires with lower flat ratio. Even in such a difficult situation, the four drivers of the team were not affected at all.

Such excellent performance on the field benefited from the world-leading CMA basic module architecture, and continued to build high-end products with "high value, high performance, high technology, high safety and high value" for the global market, forming a three-dimensional product layout. At the same time, the 03 TCR racing car based on the 03 prototype not only won the honor in WTCR RV World Cup, but also remained strong in TCR CHINA.

In October, the monthly sales volume of automobiles reached 21,868 vehicles, up about 55.78% year-on-year, achieving seven consecutive months of growth. Among them, the sales volume of Model 03 reached 7,167 vehicles in October, becoming its main force and the only self-owned brand vehicle that can stand on the A+ market. Its continuous creation of automobile sports culture ecology makes everyone feel the rise of independent brands.

China football, why is it "hot" again recently?

BEIJING, Beijing, May 27 (Reporter Bian Liqun) "Shanghai Shenhua goalkeeper Ma Zhen committed violent acts and punched the opponent’s player in the face. He was suspended for 5 games and fined 50,000 yuan; Rodriguez, a foreign aid from Meizhou Hakka, carried out non-sports behavior and used insulting gestures to the opposing players. He was suspended for 4 games and fined RMB40,000. "

On the evening of 26th, China Football Association issued another heavy ticket. This is already the second consecutive round of the Super League, and two players have been severely punished for violence on the field.

Recently, football in China is full of anger, and in addition, the referee is insulted in the game and accused by social media. Since May, the China Football Association has issued as many as 21 tickets, most of which are concentrated in the past half month.

Jia Desong (left) and Aziz, who had been severely punished before, were in the game. China News Service reporter Wang Gang photo

The fire can’t be suppressed again.

The league has returned to the home and away games, and the fans have returned to the stadium. This season, the Super League is very popular. However, recently, there has been a lot of anger.

Of course, every season, there will inevitably be angry scenes. At the beginning of last season, just after two rounds of competition, the Super League created nine red cards and five tickets.

In contrast, this season, it is an improvement to enter the third node of the league and get frequent fines.

Data Map: In the Super League last season, referee Li Haixin showed a red card to Shi Ke (first from left). Image source: IC photo

Since the fifth round, the fire in the Super League has gradually started. Sunic, the foreign aid of Henan team, pushed down Fang Hao, a teenager from Beijing Guoan, and was suspended for five games by China Football Association, and fined 50,000 yuan.

In the same round of competition, Fan Bing, an official of Nantong Zhiyun Team, was banned from entering the competition stadium for one game and fined RMB10,000 by the Football Association for publishing the contents of questioning the referee in the WeChat circle of friends.

Coincidentally, Xie Hui, the coach of Dalian People’s Team, was also banned from entering the competition stadium for one game and fined RMB 10,000 for publishing the contents of the penalty dispute on social media.

Data Map: Xie Hui directs the competition in the stands. Image source: IC photo

As Nantong Zhiyun sent a long article in response to the Football Association’s fine on May 16th, the fire reached a new height.

"The facts on which the penalty decision is based are unclear and are not within the jurisdiction of the Football Association Disciplinary Committee, and the applicable rules are inappropriate; Moreover, although the punishment decision shows that there is a’ description of the parties’ by applying the template, in fact, it did not give our club or Fan Bing any opportunity to communicate, explain and defend themselves, and never held an interview meeting or hearing under the rules, lacking due process. "

"If such’ punishment decisions’ that lack legal basis and express personal opinions are allowed to flood, it will inevitably lead to illegal restrictions on the legitimate freedom of expression of football players and lead to a chilling effect."

Until now, the China Football Association has not responded to this. And a wave of unrest, a wave of rise again.

Data Map: Xie Hui directs the competition in the stands. Image source: IC photo

In the match between Tianjin Jinmen Tiger and Shandong Taishan Mountain on May 19th, Jia Desong, a foreign aid of Taishan Team, punched Beric, a foreign aid of Tianjin Jinmen Tiger, and the latter was injured. Jia Desong was finally banned for five games by the China Football Association and fined 50,000 yuan.

In the same round of competition between Wuhan Sanzhen and Chengdu Rongcheng, Aziz, a foreign aid from the three towns, trampled on his opponent’s leg and was banned for four games and fined 40,000 yuan.

Next, Shanghai Shenhua goalkeeper Ma Zhen and Meizhou Hakka foreign aid Rodrigo.

Why are you so angry?

Recently, the violence in China football field has been concentrated, which has to cause a question: Why are people so angry?

This season’s return to the home and away Super League, although the star flavor is insufficient after the loss of big-name stars, the game is still quite fierce.

To a certain extent, some of the anger also comes from this. Under the competition for every inch of land on the court, coupled with the blessing of the players’ own hormones in the game, irrational behavior is prone to occur.

This season’s Super League is hot at home. China News Service reporter Han Haidan photo

However, combing down, the source of a lot of anger comes from some penalties.

For example, Fan Bing, an official of Nantong Zhiyun, and Xie Hui, the coach of Dalian, made speeches on social media, all of which were aimed at the referee’s penalty.

In the match between Tianjin Jinmenhu and Shandong Taishan, the players of the two teams have accumulated anger for a long time. Before Jia Desong’s boxing behavior, the fighting action has gone beyond the normal range. Unfortunately, the referee on duty failed to control the field well, which indirectly led to a large-scale conflict at the end of the game. All kinds of chaos have buried the original excitement of this goal war.

Sunic, a foreign aid from Henan province, and Aziz, a foreign aid from three towns in Wuhan, were given additional punishment for their violent behavior, but in the game, the two referees on duty only showed them yellow cards.

The Wuhan Three Towns team punished Aziz for one dollar and responded to the ticket in disguise.

Another big source of anger is the intensive schedule. Since the start of the game on April 15th, the Chinese Super League has played 9 rounds in more than one month, with each team playing once every 4 days on average.

Under the long-term consumption of double matches in a week, the players are inevitably tired of fighting, which further increases their anger.

Data Map: This season’s Super League competition. China News Service reporter Futian photo

Sparse fire can reduce fire.

Objective factors, such as the intensive schedule and the referee’s ruling level, cannot be changed in a short time. Therefore, the way of suppressing fire, which is similar to punishing improper remarks, can not reduce the fire well, but is easy to be swallowed up by fire.

Therefore, Nantong Zhiyun, Wuhan Sanzhen and other clubs responded fiercely, and the behavior of club officials abusing referees on the court and questioning referees on social media off the court became more and more concentrated.

Fans in the stands and on social media are also angry.

For the current football in China, communication needs to be strengthened, and all parties need to reduce the fire.

In fact, in the 2021 season, the Super League used the mechanism of publicly responding to controversial penalties, but it did not last long, and such responses disappeared.

In addition, some fans suggested that it is possible to reconsider choosing an international referee in some 6-point battles related to championship or relegation.

Although this move may not necessarily put an end to the phenomenon of questioning the referee and the misjudgment and omission in the court, it can still alleviate the anger caused by various trust crises.

In any case, it is really precious that the league resumes home and away games, fans return to the stadium, and some stadiums even have a hard-to-find ticket. Football practitioners in China should cherish this fire, not anger. (End)

How to grow cherries big and sweet? Here comes the exclusive secret of Liubu’s new "Cherry King"

Another year of cherry red. On May 19th, at the opening ceremony of the 15th China Jinan Nanshan Cherry Picking Festival, after comprehensive evaluation by five authoritative experts in the industry, Qin Fujun, a grower in Majiayu Village, Liubu Street, Jinan City, won the title of "Cherry King" in Liubu Street this year with three indicators of sugar content of 29%, fruit diameter of 3.6 cm and best taste. At the opening ceremony, the simple fruit grower generously shared his exclusive planting secrets with the surrounding growers from the four dimensions of management in spring, summer, autumn and winter.

Qin Fujun, a new cherry king in Liubu

In spring management, it is mainly pruning and fertilization. At this time, it is necessary to remove the branches of pests and diseases and cut the tree into "uniaxial extension". This tree-shaped nutrient is concentrated, ventilated and transparent, and almost every fruit can see the sun. In the management of fertilizer and water in spring, there is no need for nitrogen fertilizer, because the nitrogen fertilizer in everyone’s field is enough for big cherries to absorb. Qin Fujun suggested that the majority of fruit farmers should apply more organic fertilizer and potassium fertilizer. There is also a little trick about watering. Most people water after applying fertilizer, but Qin Fujun does the opposite, watering first and then fertilizing. He said that this method is not easy to dilute fertilizer. Because Liubu is sandy loam with strong air permeability, applying fertilizer and watering it will dilute, volatilize and dilute the fertilizer, which will cause waste and is not conducive to fruit absorption.

In summer management, it is mainly to control prosperity. Qin Fujun said: "Let’s remember that if the tree is too prosperous, it will not bear fruit. It will only blossom and bear no fruit. The core of controlling prosperity is: twisting the tip, picking the heart and pulling out the bud. "

In autumn management, be careful not to apply fertilizer after picking, because applying fertilizer after picking is a misunderstanding. According to Qin Fujun’s years of experience, the leaves of big cherry are thick and big, and the nutrients absorbed by photosynthesis alone are enough for flower bud differentiation. If chemical fertilizer is applied during this period, the cherry trees will grow in vain and cannot form flower buds smoothly, and the next year will almost blossom without fruit.

In winter management, Qin Fujun’s experience is "raising grass". His orchard is covered with grass. This grass has many advantages. It can cover the surface of soil in winter and achieve a certain degree of constant temperature. When the cold current comes, it can resist part of it. In other words, with grass, the orchard will not be out of production in extremely cold weather. In addition, the mixture of stone and sulfur should be applied once before winter and once in spring. It can kill insects and sterilize, keep warm, and reduce the harm caused by extreme weather.

After receiving this heavy medal, the new "Cherry King" has mixed feelings: "There are all kinds of flavors in it." Affected by the weather this year, cherry orchard of Qin Fujun’s family is also facing a reduction in production, but the overall situation is much better than that of local fruit farmers, thanks to his planting methods. Talking about why he was so generous in teaching his own planting experience, he smiled and said, "Common prosperity."

Liubu big cherry

Liubu Big Cherry Picking Festival has been held for 15 consecutive years. At the opening ceremony, Shandong Fruit Association, Vegetable Basket Production and Marketing Alliance and Shandong JD.COM Agricultural Trade Development Co., Ltd. signed strategic cooperation agreements with Liubu Sub-district Office respectively. On-site setting and evaluation of outstanding farmers in big cherry management, "Cherry King" evaluation, "Cherry" taste sweet food competition and on-site lottery interaction, etc., citizens and tourists have participated in it.

Cherry has been planted in Liubu street for hundreds of years. In the past, small cherries were mainly planted, which were small in size, poor in taste and not resistant to storage. Since 1995, Wangjiayu Village has taken the lead in clearing hills and preparing soil, returning farmland to fruits and renewing old varieties. It has used three years to develop a planting area of more than 2,000 mu of high-quality big cherries, including more than 20 varieties such as red light, Zaodaguo and Brooks. During this period, with Wangjiayu as the core radiation, the surrounding villages successively developed large cherry planting of 8,000 mu.

Liubu Sub-district Office is the main fruit production base in Jinan and the key ecological function protection zone.

This year, Liubu Street has introduced 11 high-quality new varieties, such as Samit, Luying -5, Santimei, Qizao, Santina, Cordia, LuoYaming and Luying No.3, which are characterized by large fruit, sweetness and storage resistance. Up to now, Liubu Street has more than 10,000 mu of large cherry industrial base, which has become the largest large cherry planting base in Jinan.

(Rural Popular Daily reporter Liu Zhenzhen)

Source: Rural Popular Daily